The largest single ingredient of Propolis, just over half, is resin collected from the bark and buds of trees such as alder, birch, chestnut, and poplar as well as plants. The other half is made up of wax (30%) essential oils (10%) and pollen (5%).
You also find in Propolis a wide variety of additional elements including organic and amino acids, vitamins, minerals and most importantly bioflavonoids now believed to be an active ingredient in the healing process.
All these ingredients are worked on and mixed with the bees own salivary secretions to produce ruddy-brown coloured bee glue, called Propolis.
For one bee to fill up two small baskets on her back legs, it takes more than one hour. Propolis is a sticky filler substance which the bees use to seal up the hive, protecting it from the external environment. The bees, using Propolis polishing create one of the most sterile environments Known to nature. As well as providing a purely functional role in sealing and reinforcing the hive. Propolis also performs the role of auto-immune system for the hive acting as a combined antibiotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal substance. It is the defender of the hive.